Natural languages, communication, etc

Archive for December, 2011

about quantifiers


Please look at the following formulae for the famous donkey sentence:

1. ∀x∃y (FARMER(x)^ DONKEY(y)^ OWN(x,y)–> BEAT(x,y))

2. ∀x∀y (FARMER(x)^ DONKEY(y)^ OWN(x,y)–> BEAT(x,y))

I want to know what the difference is between 1 and 2.

I’d appreciate your help.


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Tense and Aspect

        I’d like to know what the correct definitions of "tense" and
"aspect" are in linguistics.  

        In many (mostly popular) works, "tense" refers to the time of a
verb’s action.  Thus the English phrase "I will come" is in the future
tense.  "Aspect" refers to whether the action of the verb is complete
(perfect) or incomplete (imperfect).  Thus in ancient Hebrew and most
versions of Arabic, the verb has aspect but no tense.  In Russian verbs
have a distinction of aspect as well as of tense.  

        However, in a linguistics course I was told that "tense" refers to
any morphological marking of a verb’s form of action.  Under this
definition English verbs only have two tenses, present (I come), and past
(I came).  Furthermore, the perfect/imperfect distinction in ancient Hebrew
and Arabic would be called tense, not aspect, because it’s shown by

        In this case "aspect" means any further indication beyond "tense" of
a verb’s form of action.  Thus English "I will come" would fall under
"aspect", as, more obviously, would "I am coming", "I used to come", etc.  

        What is the truth of the matter?


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Breton learning materials

Can anyone make a suggestion as to a good source of learning materials
that would get an English speaker started in learning Breton? Most of
what my web searches has found is intended for people who speak

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Can an r colored vowel be written in IPA?

If so, how is it written?

For example, in Sanskrit:
pra + an = prAn.

The A is sandwiched between a cerebral r and a cerebral n, so the
vowel has to be cerebral. Indeed, it has to be  because the vowel is
cerebral that the nasal after it is forced to become cerebral. In
English, this can be written as "prarn", with an annotation that the
"ar" is non-rhotic. How would a non-rhotic "ar" vowel be written in
IPA? BTW, the vowel comes in two lengths; the shorter length is found
in pra + nAm = pran.Am.

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Forwarded message from S. Kalyanaraman…

Christist conversion marketing as multinational enterprise
 – TH Chowdary

October 7, 2008

The Danger of Hindu-Christian Riots in Andhra Pradesh
 – TH Chowdary

The weeks-long Hindu Christian riots in Kandhamal  District
of Orissa and similar incidents in Karnataka are not
unlikely to be repeated in Andhra Pradesh very soon. In
Orissa and Karnataka the riots are precipitated by the
intensive, aggressive, extensive activities of hundreds of
missionary organizations with thousands of fulltime, well-
paid propagandists and agents. In Kandhamal District, alone
there are 350 missionary organizations funded from all
quarters of the world. They are engaging lots and lots of
unemployed people, to inveigle poor and uneducated Hindus
into Christianity by monetary rewards, given in
installments related to the number of people that these
full-time marketers of Christianity are able to convert.
Aiding them are the fifth columns of a number of NGOs with
enticing names, all funded by Christian missions from
abroad?  The fact that in Kandhamal District alone the
Christian population has increased from 6 percent in 1970
to 27 percent in 2001, despite an Act enacted by Orissa
Legislature in 1967 to prevent conversion shows the
intensity of the multinational conversion, [MNC]
enterprises marketing and financial clout.

2.      In Karnataka, it is plain blasphemy, openly and
aggressively indulged in by an MNC enterprise that has led
to the Hindu-Christian strife. In Andhra Pradesh, strife is
building up and will burst with great fury in not too
distant a time. In Village after Village, different
denominations of Christians are planting churches,
recruiting converts as pastors, paying them handsomely,
they are also engaging thousands of unemployed Hindu youth
for propagating Christianity and gaining converts. These
are being rewarded in installments.  Just as the total
compensation of company employees is having a fixed and
varying components, fixed amount and varying amount related
to the number of converts they are able to bring into

3       A look at the Table below shows the fantastically
numerous places of worship or prayers of Muslims and
Christians district-wise in our State it would be seen
based upon Christian  population  is 1.44% as per the
census of 2001,  there is one   place of worship for seven
Christians and one place of worship for 39 Muslims and one
place of worship for 341 Hindus.

Existing No. of Temples, Mosques and Churches in as on 31st
March 2005. (Revenue and Endowment Board of Andhra Pradesh)

District        Temples Churches Mosques
Adilabad        12,346  3,347   18,482
Ananthpur       14,008  4,892   9,328
Chittor         26,120  9,098   12,320
Cuddpah         22,982  7,241   14,223
East Godavari   8,220   12,123  9,230
Guntur          9,302   16,388  5,429
Hyderabad       13,144  3,204   15,203
Kakinada        7,203   8,585   5,274
Karimnagar      4,129   1,648   9,714
Khammam         5,210   7,203   5,922
Krishna         8,929   8,462   3,769
Kurnool         6,549   5,203   9,293
Machlipatnam    5,000   8,320   6,493
Mahboobnagar    3,299   3,128   7,235
Medak           6,302   3,203   3,234
Nellore         7,993   6,782   7,323
Nalgonda        6,882   2,412   5,239
Nizamabad       4,638   3,203   9,366
Prakasham       4,255   5,583   4,932
Srikakulam      7,339   9,879   2,140
Warangal        1,393   6,320   1,342
West Godavari   3,293   5,464   2,765
Vishakapatnam   6,430   3,203   4,203
Vizianagaram    3,891   3,100   3,500

TOTAL      198,857   147,991  175,959

4       Where from is the money coming for the large number
of Christians’ places of worship, if the Christian
population is only 1.44%? In contradiction of the census
figures, leaders of Christian churches and associations
having been asserting that their population is not less 10%
to 12% in Andhra Pradesh and therefore every party must put
up 10% to 12% candidates of their total number, from
Christians. The difference between 1.44% as per GOI’s
census of 2001 and 10% to 12% claimed by Christians is
clear indication of the fraud that the conversion
enterprises are indulging in. It appears that they are
telling the converts to continue to describe themselves as
Hindu Scheduled Castes, so that they continue to get the
benefit of reservations meant for Hindu SCs.  They withhold
the fact of conversion from the government records.  At the
same time in order to protect themselves from the exposure
of fraud and continue to get benefit of reservations, they
have launched a movement for get "Christian dalits".  The
greatest lure to get converts from Hindu Harijans is that
in Christianity there are no castes.  How come then that
there are Dalits among Christians? Another fraud that the
converters are indulging in is 70% of the Christians in
Andhra Pradesh are former SCs.  In the educational
Institutions and medical Institutions that Christians are
founding and managing, there are no reservations for "dalit
Christians". But the churchmen and the converters are
asking that in Hindu Institutions, including government and
colleges there should be reservations to Christian dalits.
98% of the Bishops in India are from upper castes, while
70% of the Christians are former Scheduled Castes. The
caste discrimination continues in Christianity. There are
Reddy Christians, Kamma Christians, Brahmin Christians and
Dalit Christians. They seldom inter-marry. This is another
fraud for selling Christianity.

5       Almost all Hindus are feeling tremendously agitated
about the intense activities of the multinational
conversion enterprises, their planting of churches in
Villages. Families are getting divided, so are Village
populations and so will be the entire polity in the state.
Wanting to know whether there is anything in the Gospels
which promotes this division and strife in the people, I am
surprised to find the following in the Gospel according to
Luke in the New Testament Chapter 12,

51 "Do you suppose that I came to give peace on earth? I
tell you, not at all, but rather division.

52  "For from now on five in one house will be divided:
three against two, and two New testament of Bible:

53:  "Father will be divided against son and son against
father, mother against daughter and daughter against

6        In Andhra Pradesh especially in districts of the
Godavari, we are sitting on a time-bomb of Hindu-Christian
strife. To prevent this, intelligentsia in the State and
newspapers and media men with integrity must bring out the
facts, including the conflict between 1.44% Christian
population according to government on the one hand and
thousands of  churches and claims of Christian leaders that
their population is 10% and more.  Government should also
find out where from the money is coming for thousands of
full timers and buildings for churches. Income Tax
authorities must also swing into action to assess the total
cost of all the churches that are built and find out from
the church owners, the sources of their funds.

7       Finally, Government of Andhra Pradesh is
contributing not a small measure to the building up of
strife between Christians and Hindus by subsidizing the
pilgrimage of Christians to Jerusalem from the funds of the
‘secular’ Government of Andhra Pradesh.  The ‘secular’
government is spending tax moneys for the performance of
Christians’ marriages. Government of Andhra Pradesh is not
spending tax moneys for subsidizing the pilgrimage of
Hindus or performance of their marriages. The TTD’s
‘Kalyanamastu’  is financed by offerings of Hindus to the
Hindu God, Balaji in Tirumala.  Government of Andhra
Pradesh is also spending tax moneys, performing marriages
of Muslims.This way the government is contributing to the
heart burning among Hindus and therefore for the building
up of potential strife between the various religious
communities in the state. It would be proper for any
responsible government, especially the government of Andhra
Pradesh which claims to be transparent and accountable to
come out with a White Paper on the number of conversion
enterprises, associated NGOs and  finances available to the
MNC enterprises to build numerous churches; how many are
engaged as full timers for conversion activities and
whether the Supreme Court’s observation that the right to
propagate guaranteed in the Constitution does not confer
right to convert is being flouted by the MNC enterprises..
And since the conversion activities are conducted as a
business with modern marketing methods, with multinational
sources for funds, the constitutionally guaranteed freedom
to propagate, profess and practice religion is being
misused by the commercial activities of the multinational
conversion enterprises. Right to convert oneself to another
religion is legal; can such a right to convert extend to
MNC enterprises, operating on commercial lines? It would
be right and prudent to ban this organized marketing of
religions by company-like multinational enterprise
conversion missions offering the same product competitively
under different brands.

Dr T H Chowdary
* Director: Center for Telecom Management & Studies
Chairman: Pragna Bharati, Andhra Pradesh
Fellow: Tata Consultancy Services & Satyam Computer Services
Former: Information Technology Advisor: Government  of Andhra Pradesh
Chairman & Managing Director, Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd
Plot No. 8, P&T Colony, Karkhana (Secunderabad), Hyderabad – 500 009.
Phone: +91 (40) 2784-6137,6667-1191  (Off) & 2784-3121 (Res)
Fax:    +91 (40) 6667-1111,  2789-6103  (Off)

End of forwarded message from S. Kalyanaraman

Jai Maharaj
Om Shanti

Hindu Holocaust Museum

Hindu life, principles, spirituality and philosophy

The truth about Islam and Muslims


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